U of I Quarknet 2014 Report: CMS Model
Quarknet 2014 Report - University of Iowa
Preston Ross (Bettendorf High School)
William Fawcett (Bettendorf High School)
Archie Weindruch (Bettendorf High School)
Mr. Bruecken and Ms. Truesdell (Bettendorf High School)
Mr. Wetzel (University of Iowa)
The purpose of this project is to create an easily replicable, interactive, 3D scale model of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at CERN. The model implements two current technologies: an Afinia 3D printer1 and Arduino Uno2 for its construction and functions. Once completed, the 3D design can easily be shared and printed throughout the world by anyone with a 3D printer, while other components of the model can be bought and assembled based on the finished model. The actual functions of CMS are simulated by lights controlled by the Arduino electronics boards . An interface with a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM)3 allows the model to use cosmic muons to mimic a particle collision, with LEDs lighting up the model correspondingly, all of which can be controlled via an application available to an iPad or iPhone. The model is meant to be used for educational purposes, providing a cheaper way to closely examine the construction and functioning of the Compact Muon Solenoid.
The design of the 3D model of the CMS4 was accomplished by viewing schematics of the CMS and replicating it at a 1:60 scale5. Rather than producing one large piece of plastic in the general shape of the CMS, each major component of the CMS was printed and fitted together. The solenoid, being the largest singular piece of the CMS, limited the size of the 3D model, and thus the scale was based off the maximum allotted size of the model solenoid (12.7cm x 12.7cm). Additional parts, included to represent the functionality of the CMS, include the pixel detector, the preshower detector, the Forward Hadron Calorimeter, the silicon tracker, the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL), the Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL), and the Muon Detector, complete with its iron plates. The model’s parts are designed to be self-contained. A very minimal amount of glue is required for the pieces to hold together, as most parts interlock and wedge together, with an additional cradle holding up the structure itself.
The custom programmed Arduino Uno was used to control LEDs for display purposes6. The LEDs are capable of being turned on/off for each of the aforementioned parts of the model. A Silicon Photomultiplier Module (SiPM) is used to detect an actual cosmic ray muon which triggers the model to light up its components. This is meant to give a visualization of the muon stations in the CMS which help to track the muons given off from the high energy particle collisions. Compatibility with the iPad/iPhone was worked on using the iOS Developer software.
Results and Further Work:
A 3D printed, scale model of the CMS7 at CERN was successfully designed and printed8. However, while the code and capability of the LED display implementing a Silicon Photomultiplier and controlled by an iPad app exists, each part of the project has yet to be combined. The scale model has been successfully designed, the code for LED compatibility has been written, and code for an iPad/iPhone application has been written, but these components, due to time constraints, have not been combined for the final idealized product. For future work on this project, adhesive LEDs--such as those offered by superbrightleds.com9--must be purchased and connected to an Arduino, and an interface, preferably wireless using the Arduino Wifi Shield10--must be made between an iPad/iPhone and the Arduino in order to control the model.
Beyond the further work for this project alone, it may be beneficial, due to the increasingly useful nature of 3D printing, to pursue the creation of a working 3D model of CERN itself, as well as many other scientific experiments that, due to their uniqueness and size, could benefit from a smaller model useful for the education and training of its use and purposes. And the general populace may find more interest and understanding in science if an otherwise inaccessible and abstract experiment became a tangible object which they could access and control simply via an iPad/iPhone.