Black Hills State University QuarkNet Center
Submitted by Anonymous (not verified)
on Monday, June 3, 2013 - 10:00
Teachers, students and physicists working together to explore high energy physics.
A collaboration of teachers, students and physicists involved in inquiry-based, particle physics explorations.
After summer travel and my regional QuarkNet meeting I am finally home for a few days. I am gearing up for the new school year and ready to integrate the things I learned at ISE into my curriculums.
I really appreciate the opportunity I was given to attend ISE in Greece. Each day we were presented with inquiry based education ideas and online resources we could use in our classroom. Each of the attending teachers were to draw up a new lesson and use some of these resources. I enjoyed using Celestia for my new lesson. I look forward to integrating it into my class. I hope to be able to improve my lesson once I present it to my students for the first time. I also value having access to the many new lessons from the other teachers in the workshop. We deposited our lessons on the Open Discovery Space which is a rich resource for teachers (http://portal.opendiscoveryspace.eu/ ). Many of the topics presented by the teachers are applicable to my classes.
The international aspect of the workshop was amazing. I always find it so enriching to talk with people of various cultures. Getting to know more QuarkNet teachers and other physics and astronomy teachers from Europe and Portugal was a great experience. With modern communications and transportation, the world seems a little cozier and I can embrace the uniqueness of each culture and individuals from all over the world. Programs at CERN exemplify this.
Best wishes to everyone for a wonderful new school year!
We are going to do.......
How can we implement this in our classroom?
Something something about the P waves giving students a better idea about the structure of the interior of the Earth.
Insert reference to: reflection, refraction, diffusion, different types of waves, wave mechanics, etc
Change of wave speed in various mediums
Use LIGO to discuss Gravity waves and extend that discussion to wave mechanics.
Light, its behavior, etc.
LIGO Data can also be used for independent research projects to get students involved.
I made this long ago: LIGO Activity
Can be used to introduce and practice basic scientific method research method(s).
Sometimes I like to throw deep ideas at the kids and make their heads hurt
Use given resources to describe how Gravity is described as a wave
Introduce what an interferometer is and how it is used at LIGO. Interferometers are used on spacecraft in the solar system.
Use lasers to demonstrate reflection, deflection
The LIGO and Cosmic e-labs lend themselves to studies the students come up with themselves. Could easily be used for extended studies.
Use in the discussion of orbiting binary stars, neutron stars, supernovas...
By Deirdre Peck & Steve Gabriel
What are the types of seismic waves? How are they different from one another?
Geologists divide the seismic waves that travel through the Earth's interior into two basic types,
"primary" or "P-waves" and
"secondary" or "S-waves."
A P-wave is a compressional wave that makes the rock vibrate parallel to the direction of its movement.
Since it is a very fast wave traveling through rock at between four and seven kilometers per second, the P-wave is the first wave to arrive at a recording station following an earthquake.
This is also known as a longitudinal wave
An S-wave, on the other hand, has a shearing motion that makes the rock vibrate perpendicular to its path.
This movement slows the S-wave, so that it travels at two to five kilometers per second or about half the speed of the P-wave.
This is why S-waves arrive as secondary waves at the Earth's surface.
There is another important difference between P-waves and S-waves.
Although both can pass through solid rock, only P-waves can also pass through gases and liquids.
This is also known as a transverse wave
Wave animations found at:
What are sources of seismic waves? From Wikipedia
A seismic source is a device that generates controlled seismic energy used to perform both reflection and refraction seismic surveys. A seismic source can be simple, such as dynamite, or it can use more sophisticated technology, such as a specialized air gun. Seismic sources can provide single pulses or continuous sweeps of energy, generating seismic waves, which travel through a medium such as water or layers of rocks. Some of the waves then reflect and refract and are recorded by receivers, such as geophones or hydrophones.
Seismic sources may be used to investigate shallow subsoil structure, for engineering site characterization, or to study deeper structures, either in the search for petroleum and mineral deposits, or to map subsurface faults or for other scientific investigations. The returning signals from the sources are detected by seismic sensors (geophones or hydrophones) in known locations relative to the position of the source. The recorded signals are then subjected to specialist processing and interpretation to yield comprehensible information about the subsurface.
How are seismic waves measured?
Seismic waves are basically measured by keeping an instrument still and having the inertia of the earth movement record the on the instrument.
S waves are emanating vertically at the surface of the earth.
P waves would generate the horizontal waves on the surface
Describe seismic waves.
Zach Beam, Amanda Towry, Jim Stith
What are the types of seismic waves? How are they different from one another?
P Waves are compression waves (longitudinal waves) These waves are faster than S waves
S waves are transverse waves (perpendicular to the direction of the wave) Arrive at the seismometer after primary waves
Love waves move back and forth (side to side)
Rayleigh waves move in an elliptical path
How do the various types of seismic waves propagate through the earth?
"In style" (Towry, 2016)
Refraction-based on density. This changes as the waves go through different materials. The Angle of Incidence and Angle of Refraction causes P and S waves to curve.There is a shadow zone where body waves are not detected due to refraction.
Reflection-the wave doesn't just refract, but it also reflects at the junction of the rocks. Then you have two waves propagating through the Earth.
Dispersion-Only applicable to the surface waves. Different periods travel at different velocities so the effects of dispersion become more apparent over distances. Cliff notes: Stronger waves travel further.
Why are seismic waves important to LIGO?
Because LIGO measures the "squishy and expansiony thingy" (Beam, 2016) of gravitational waves. In order to eliminate the background noise of seismic activity, LIGO must know what is going on in the ground in order to rule it out.
Participating teachers will be able to use the LIGO e-Lab to:
- Plot and interpret data recorded by LIGO seismic instruments
- Explain the importance of LIGO seismic data in gravitational wave search
- Identify and list classical physics concepts in LIGO data analysis
- Develop a plan for use of the LIGO e-Lab in the classroom.
Times and specific activities are subject to adjustment.
Monday July 25
08:00 Coffee, Registration
9:00 Gravitational Waves presentation
10:15 Interferometer activity
11:30 Look back/Look forward
13:00 Exploration of LIGO e-Lab:
14:45 Search and analyze in data:
16:30 End of Day
Tuesday July 26
10:00 Begin resreach
13:00 Finish research/Create Posters
14:15 Poster Presentation
14:45 Implementation discussion
16:00 End of workshop
It is an amazing experience here in Greece! This week I am with teachers from the United States and across Europe to develop lesson plans around inquiry science. A respository of these types of scenarios called Go Labs is found at http://www.golabz.eu/. We have been introduced to a variety of eTools and resources to engage students in learning about science and in particular, physics and high energy physics. An interesting app I want to share allows you to use your cell phone as a cosmic ray muon detector: http://crayfis.io/ . The Institute's leaders, Dr. Eugenia Kypriotis, Dr. Angelos Lazoudis, and Dr. Rosa Doran, have organized an outstanding offering for science teachers. Thank you to QuarkNet for sponsoring this opportunity to collaborate with teachers throughout the world in beautiful Greece!