Virtual QuarkNet Center
Submitted by kcecire
on Friday, May 31, 2013 - 07:51
The Virtual QuarkNet Center is a group of teachers, generally far from a geographic QuarkNet center but who work together using online tools to collaborate. Virtual QuarkNet Center teachers have monthly Sunday evening videoconferences during the school year and meet face-to-face once each summer. The teachers participate in cosmic ray studies using the cosmic ray e-Lab and in international masterclasses from their schools. The mentors, Antonio Delgado, a particle physicist at the University of Notre Dame, and Danielle McDermott, condensed matter physicist at Pacific Univerisity; emeritus mentor Dan Karmgard, another Notre Dame particle physicist; the lead teachers, Dave Trapp (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Mike Wadness, are QuarkNet fellows from Washington and Massachusetts, respectively. The QuarkNet Leadership Fellow who works with the group is Debbie Gremmelsbacher.
VQC is a group of QuarkNet teachers who are separated geographically but collaborate online.
Virtual QuarkNet Center Visit: Brookhaven National Laboratory: Physics Department
August 7, 2017 am
Antonio: CERN update accelerator started in May. Next year, there will be a 2-3 year shut down to fix the detector. CERN has the coldest place in the Universe. -2.7 C with liquid Helium. the silicon trackers are currently fried from the high energy, so the 2-3 year shut down to replace parts. so the LHC will not take data in 2019 ir 2020. there will be a high luminosity upgrade in 2024, much farther away. when the LHC was approved in 1989 the technology of the super conducting quadripole magnets was not invented yet. so there are plans at CERN 40-50 years out . They are looking to discover a way for the neutrinos not to create a background problem at higher energy.
CPT T2K, charge, parity, time.
weak interaction violates parity. all electrons were left handed polarized. 0 momentum. active neutrinos are only left handed,
cp violation produces more matter than antimatter.
solar neutrinos change flavor on their way to us from the sun. quarks also to mutate and oscillatate. We may have seen a situation that shows hints of universaility violations
this decay should be produced in a one to one ration should be chose to 1 to 1 ratio, but it is being violated by 25%.
August 7, 2017 pm
Bs (p subshell) meson decaying to mu+ mu-
bs (s subshell) meson decaying to e+ e-
LHC sometimes runs in heavy ion mode. collides gold (RICK) or lead (ALEES). the study is to see what happens when you put lots of quarks and gluons together. qcd studies show it is not a normal proton and neutron plasma, but it produces a quark and gluon plasma soup.
Danielle: What is condensed matter?
Wadness: masterclass overview started today will continue tomorrow
August 8, 2017 am
am: CMS masterclass overview from Wadness, go through activities that are precursors to masterclass. Do the mini masterclass activities.
Practice at I-spy and data set organization w histogram on CIMA collection system.
Presentation from Brookhaven teacher group and their experiences/insights with master class.
Presentation from: Steve Bellavia: The LSST the power point for this presentation has been made available on the Virtual page.
worlds largest survey telescope, mountain in chile 7000 feet
R = 1.2197 lambda/2A R is resolution of smaller objects. So as aperature is larger in the denominator the resolution decreases to be able to resolve (see clearly) a smaller object.
largest lens ever built largest camera ever built. focal plane =-100C ; electronic boards -40C
this telescope is looking for objects very far away, and looking at the milky way or moon would be too bright and damage the sensitive photocells.
mirrors and lens’ are being produced in the lab under the football field at the University of Arizona. Many of the large mirrors and lens’ at astronomies across the globe are made here.
24th magnitude of a single exposure.
what is lsst going to study? takes snapshots very quickly and covers 1/2 the sky in 3 days.
dark matter, dark energy, supernovae, mapping the milky way (will detect about 10 billion stars), near earth objects (neo).
1998 congress mandates discovery of 90% of all neo > 1000 m in diameter by 2008. and more
August 8, 2017 pm
Atlas project presentation by Helio Takai
Majority of nuclei coming to earth from outside universe are protons, but they react in our atmosphere and cause showers of particles. Many pions are produced because they are light and easy to produce. P zeros produce showers of electrons. they also dcay to muons then electrons. detectors are located in mamy places, underground labs, fluorescence detector above ground, ground array of large scintillators, under water or ice, balloons, mariachi project thought that muons could be detected using high energy radar, the telescope was built to detect a muon hit in a high school. 2008 to 2016, it showed more muons in winter contraction of atmosphere makes muons take longer to decay. the small dips in max pattern can be linked to cme timing within the time of the month. You can also overlay the data on the atmospheric pressure at specific time of year. also connected to atmospheric tides of air flow based on warming earth with sunrise. day vs night. more muons at night and in July. Data stability and reliability needs a large area array to be visible and data collected year round.
During our time at Brookhaven, we were in the right place at the right time for a special lecture presentation. Brief outline notes are below.
Sambamurti Memorial Lecture August 7, 2017
Searching for new parti9cles at the LHC: CMS Jim Hirschauer
ehs.utoronto.ca nothing has yet been found smaller than a quark.
success of standard model: discovery of higgs boson 2012
properties of higgs boson collect data into 2030
test standard model at high energy complete…. sort of
precisely measure properties of sm particles
looking for new particles
why use high energy collisions
the collider is like a giant microscope
spatial resolution is limited by wavelength of probe.
each proton has 6.5 Tev of energy but the individual energy of the quarks and gluons inside are unknown.
next goal; discover something new.
standard model (sm) has a few problems
dark matter is not described in sm
theoretical concerns with the calculation of the higgs boson mass
sm does not explain its own structure, it is not as cohesive for example as the periodic table of elements. The sm is not nearly as elegant and insightful.
planck satellite measured the difference for mass based on rotation. we know there must be dark ,matter in the center.
supersymetry particles SUSY. gluon has a SUSY particle called Gluino neutrino has a SUSY partner called neutralino
theorists are trying to connect the potential ability to produce those with a low producton rate.
the gluino may be too heavy too see. Low production rate of susy particles.
August 9, 2017 am
Tesla Museum and site experience. Historical artifacts and sequence of experimental results. Very interesting presentation by Rich Gearns of Brookhaven.
Participating teachers will:
- Be able to complete Masterclass prep activities on their own.
- Be able to implement Masterclass prep activities in their classroom.
- Be able to complete the Masterclass excercises.
- Be able to develop a plan for how to implement the Masterclass with their students.
Enduring Understandings from the Masterclass
These are points we want students to remember long after the masterclass.
- Particle physics research requires the use of indirect evidence to support claims.
- The Standard Model is the current theoretical framework for our understanding of matter.
- The behavior of particles is governed by conservation laws and mass-energy conversion.
Student Masterclass Learning Objectives
These are things we want students to be able to do as a result of the masterclass.
After the masterclass activity students will be able to:
- Explain that a general-purpose collider detector is made of a number of subsystems and describe what they are designed to measure.
- Express an increased appreciation for the nature of scientific investigation.
- Describe features of the Standard Model—which particles are which and how they relate to one another.
- Identify specific particles and their decays by their signatures.
- Give examples of how hadrons or force carriers can decay into different types of leptons.
- Describe/show how conservation laws, behavior of particles in a magnetic field and energy-mass conversion apply to particle physics.
- Give examples of conservation of charge in particle decays.
Meeting Room: 2-84 Physic Department
Mon Aug 7
8:00 AM Depart Hotel
8:30 AM Objectives and Business
Mentor Physics Update
9:15 AM Masterclass Prep Activities
12:00 PM Lunch at Berkner Hall
With BNL QuarkNet
2pm CMS Seminar: Large Seminar Room
James Hirschauer, FNAL
4pm Visit to Tesla future Museum Site (Rich Gearns)
6pm Dinner at Phil’s.
(not far from Tesla site)
Tues Aug 8
8:00 AM Depart Hotel
8:30 Refelctions from prep activities
8:45 Introduction to CMS Data Analysis
9:15 CMS Data Analysis
9:45 Discuss Results
10:15 Introduction to ATLAS Data Analysis
10:45 ATLAS Data Analysis
11:15 Discuss Results
11:45 Discuss Implementation Models
LSST presentation by Steve Bellavia (2pm)
The ATLAS Detector (Helio)
Wed Aug 8
8:00 AM Depart Hotel
8:30 AM Cosmic Ray Experiment - hardware and Analysis
10:00 AM - Tour of STAR Experiment
Guest speaker, Dennis E. Krause, gave a talk to the Virtual QuarkNet group during our December 2016 video conference on what many consider unexpected annual periodicities discovered in rates of beta decays. Many of us had considred decay rates to be very constant, depending almost entirely on the interior of the specific nuclei undergoing radioactive decay. He provided background on this anomaly and suggest some possible explanations. The pdf for his talk is viewable by clicking below:
Here is a link to all the source material from the talk last night (11/20/16) about the visual cosmic ray detector in the lead ion beam at CERN. Everything can be found at http://freyr.phys.nd.edu/~karmgard/LeadIonVQN/ . Don't try to play the movies in your browser, it will only sneer at you. Download to your system first and play it from there. Qmplayer and VLC are both known to play these, QuickTime doesn't seem to work.
Virtual Center Annual Report 2016
This year The Virtual Center was very successful.
We continue to meet virtually once a month via video conference.
This summer 8 members of our group choose to meet at the University of Chicago for a major update on LIGO’s newest discoveries. The learning experience was enriched through presentations from our own members as well as guest speakers, Shane Larson, on staff at Adler Planetarium as well as other Universities; and a live videoconference with Dale Ingram from Hanover LIGO.
Shane's presentation was very informative and he is an exceptional speaker. Would highly recommend to any other centers considering a LIGO update if they are nearby his homebase.
Dale gave newest information from the Hanover site and answered our questions regarding the discovery and their publishing process.
Danielle McDermott posted a copy of Shane Larson’s power point to the Virtual Center site so we could all have access in the future. Teacher groups posted to the Virtual Center their LIGO elab site work. 'The Gents' and 'Debbie and Kathy'.
We were fortunate to have both our mntors present during this meeting, Antonio Delgado, theoretical physicist and Dan Karmgard, experimental physicist. The exchange of ideas from the different points of view were, as always, fascinating. We are exceptionally lucky to have both points of view which allow updates on the theory and the practice of HEP.
Member, Trish Baker, had a research student during the school year 15-16. Using a CRMD with set up help from fellow virtual LF member, Debbie Gremmelsbacher, Trish’s student conducted extensive studies on many aspects of muon detection such as plate distance, concrete layer shielding, and atmospheric effects.
Our members continue to use elabs and masterclass when appropriate depending on the class we are teaching or presenting to.
Below are specific notes from the August 2016 meetings by date.
Virtual Quarknet Meeting August 11-13
Thursday August 11: University of Illinois Chicago: UIC
Seismic data. absolutely necessary for LIGO research.
Antonio Delgado: mentor news from LHC: HEP meeting lepton and aps, lhc was working last year but not perfectly, this year it is working beyond expectations. The data today has cleaned up the 750 TeV data. New data had a particle that decays to 2 photons of high energy. One of the ways to discover a Higgs. 750 gEv doesnot exist. over 100 papers tried to explain. frequency y v Mgg on the x. 90 of 100 were the same paper… Higgs has been appearing regularly at 13 TeV data.
Ice cube experiment: km of ice looking for neutrinos, run by University of Wisconsin, have reported new cosmic ray data as well as neutrinos. Neutrinos do have mass and they oscillate. Not all the data can be completely fitted to the 3 we know of. They do not all come from the Z particle.
Einstein explained that maxwells equation could explain how something travels faster than c. Gravity took Einstein 1905-1916. Completely different. Something unique and different. Forces are external, space and time. Gravity bends space time, it is not a force. In special relativity you must say what time is it in what frame. There are certain questions that do not make sense. Space bends in the way anything bends, but space and time. You must have time and space coordinates. Bending. You feel gravity going from one space to another because it is moving. Projection of a globe onto a flat map is misleading.
A triangle on a spherical surface has angles that total 360 not 180. matter affect space time and vice versa. Maxwell’s equation of a wave is one of the easiest explanations that moves at c, the gravitational wave moving at c. Very difficult measurement to make because what you are looking for is soooo weak, and surrounding interference is so great.
The gravitational waves we are currently seeing are from Black Holes, only the most massive of objects. We are also looking at SuperNova.
In the same way that a photon is a quantum of light. the graviton is a quantum of gravity.
From Einstein mass and energy is the same,there must be an affect on all particles even light. Newtonian mechanics cannot explain the bending of light but Einstein’s relativity can. We do not have a theory of Quantum Gravity. It makes sense to call contact forces a force but long range Forces like gravity, we really should not use the word force. You would be more correct to describe it as gravity interaction. This is not the same as astronomical gravitational waves.
classical physics has h with a value. quantum physics h=0. The way we build theories in the quantum world. When what you are calculating comes close to the Plank mass. String theory is not a theory of particles. It is a potential explanation of quantum gravity, not particles. String theory has not been able to derive anything regarded to gravity. Philosophical changes in ways of teaching physics at all college levels. Plank mass = 10 to the 19th GeV. Higg’s field shows the binding energy mass of the quarks inside a proton. The Higgs does not measure the mass of the quarks, but the conversion of the binding energy of the quarks to mass.
August 11; pm
Helix with spring and laser demo. creates an x of lines and spaces with another set of spaces in between. Using measurements from the pictures produced on a screen, you can calculate the radium and pitch of the spring.
Einstein’s messengers video explaining bend in space time; video was made prior to the discovery of gravitational waves at LIGO.
LIGO seismology questions. Online at virtual site.
Friday August 12:
am videoconference with Dale Ingram from Hanover LIGO
Monitors surround the walls. combination of detector parameters, monitoring various physical properties.
also monitors contain past and current data. system monitors the suspension system considered to be a subsystem of the larger system. Also shown is the laser beam camera view at different points along the 2 detector arms. The Guardian screen is of the software system that oversees the detector, color coded with different channels of software subsystems. The also have a display of reference traces. shows separation of instrument at lower frequency of around 10 Hz. but the differences are on the 10 -16 m differences.
Seismometer graph overlays of from different positions withing the arms. Current graph shows a 7.5 quake in the Pacific Ocean, and it will be several hours before the the background and aftershocks calm down enough so that they will be able to possibly see a gravity wave. Right now there is too much interference. Significant investment has been made in sensing equipment for safety and measuring. The first data run produced 2 gravity waves announced at different times as the data was evaluated. Then there is about a 3 month delay between ‘I think we have something’ and checking it out and having an official announcement.
After a significant event there is continuous movement for a significant time. So the resonance within the interferometer is loss. They call this “Losing Lock” within the interferometer. We experienced this yesterday when we set up the table top interferometer. Very difficult obtain a successful “locked” position macroscopically, a slight lean on the table will cause ‘Losing Lock’. Dale had to leave the control room. And is now in the electronics room. the electronics are sources out for production, then they test and adapt what is manufactured for them. Their designs are developed at CalTech. Physics and electrical engineers are both working on the same equipment.
difference between the signal of black holes colliding vs neutron stars spiraling, sometimes varied by the frequency level reached in the detector. computer helps identify with software modeling within the computer. Black holes are much lower frequencies than neutron star circling. Mathematical modeling in spirals has been a 30 year calculation problem that was solved about 8 years ago. Also, the amplitude of the signal helps identify the type of event that caused the gravitational wave. Neutron stars spiral up to a very high frequency. the black holes that merged were each about 30 solar masses. 2 neutron stars 30 times bigger than the sun are orbiting each other at 150 cycles/sec, so their total spiral for 2 bodies 300 cycles/sec. black hole mergers do not produce an electromagnetic signal. the neutron star spiral may produce a gamma ray signal. Multi signal (messenger) astromony is becoming a big field. Looking for all kinds of signals. gamma, EMR, magnetic, seismic. They have letters of agreement with 60 different laboratories collecting data. Dozens of partners are alerted when they pick up a trigger. and vice versa. Double way of looking, check photons and neutrinos, to try and locate the place in space to look for where the trigger came from.
What goes on between first sight and announcement. About 5 months between detection and publication.
detailed and laborious cross checking of the data to rule out the possibility that the signal was not gravitational. make sure there are no correlations with other sienvironmentsl gnals. Also rigorous checking with the other detector. make sure that it wasn’t something environmental or internal that set them off. also rule out that it wasn’t an injection, but an Accidentally planted self check.
modeling the event by using the wave form. assigning parameters run through general and special relativity calculations to make sure that.
writing the paper… the first paper. Hundreds of scientists at different places around the world, 1st draft, 2nddraft.took about a week. They anticipate the process will speed up with time.
Yesterday’s discovery is today’s background and tomorrow’s calibration. Dan Karmgard
One person’s signal is another person’s noise. Dale Ingram
Project Poster work.
Double earth quake discovered in LIGO, May 18, 2016. we used usgs to find epicenter. Rosa Zarate, Ecuador.
2:30 pm Friday: Shane Larson
Center for Interdisciplineary Exploration and Research in Astronomy. CIERA
A new kind of astronomy;
past pictures from hubble and our own telescopes lead us to be familiar with pictures of space objects, moon.
newer astronomy does not depend so much on photographs. IR, microwave, etc. Trying to look at the sky, the Milky Way Galaxy blocks your view of whatever you are trying to see. The Milky Way is called the Zone of Avoidance by astronomists.
Can you harness the ideas of studying the cosmos as a whole. Gravitational waves are transverse. x and y. Polarization state for gravitational waves are compression and expansion in a flat plane in front of you, when the wave is traveling toward you, perpendicular change.
What are gravitational waves, a consequence of special relativity.
If you can receive the wave of the collision that created the gravitry wave it should tell you something about the interaction that created the wave. How does the phenomena you want to observe affect the space around you. It took 47 years to figure out how to build 1957 at the ChapelHill Conference (Parani) His concentration was on factors of invariance between ople measure things in different ways. Distance. = proper space time distance.
Two polarization states, plus and cross: + and x
Gravitational wave spectrum freq v period. could convert to wavelengths.
period represents the time for one rotation. seconds per cycle.
twice the orbital frequency is the gravitational frequency.
Runaway mergers; citizen science program. Zooniverse.org
Here is the the lab activity that uses the diffraction pattern of a spring as an analogy to the famous x-ray diffraction of DNA. This lab is written by Rick Dower who adapted it from the physics teacher.
The original physics teacher article can be found at https://soundphysics.ius.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/PTE000140.pdf
Hello World! Questions from the powers that be on seismology:
- What are the types of seismic waves? How are they different from one another?
s-waves or shear waves (transverse!!!)
p-waves or pressure waves (longitudinal!!!)
- How do the various types of seismic waves propagate through the earth?
Didn't I just answer that?
- Why are seismic waves important to LIGO?
LIGO is sensitive to vibration. If seismic waves pass through the earth, it will move the beams. This can stretch one arm of the interferometer and create a signal,
- What are sources of seismic waves?
Motion of the plates - see cookie-techtonics for more information:
- How are seismic waves measured?
What is spacetime?
- What are gravitiational waves?
- Why do we seek to detect gravitational waves?
- What are the sources of gravitational waves?